The non believers were angry with the increasing number of people who declared their acceptance of the religion of Islam. They were full of arrogance and conceit, so they got together and decided to launch a campaign of harassment and provocation against the Muslims. They accused the prophet of being a liar, a sorcerer and madman. They made every effort to stop the spread of Islam. But Islam slowly and surely continued spreading among them.
One day the leader of the non-believers decided to invite the prophet to a meeting to talk about his lies and stop him from spreading the new religion. In the meeting the non-believers said, “If you want wealth, then we are prepared to raise enough money for you to make you the richest among us. If it is honour and prestige you want, we will make you our king. If you are suffering from some kind of illness or possessed by some evil spirit, then we will send for the best doctor or the best healer to come and treat you or drive these evil spirits away. But you have to stop calling people to Islam.” The prophet said that he did not want anything and did not suffer from any disease: all he wanted was to give them good tidings of Allah’s rewards and to warn them of His Wrath.
After no further efforts could be made to stop the spread of Islam they made up their minds to get rid of the prophet even by killing him if necessary. The only thing that stopped them doing that straightaway was their fear of the prophet's uncle Abu Talib. So they asked him to stop his nephew from spreading Islam, slandering their Gods and mocking their beliefs or they would fight him, his nephew and those who sided with him. Abu Talib was in a difficult position; he found himself in a real dilemma, torn between him and his people. So he called his nephew and told him what had happened with the Qurasyh people and their offer to him, he said, "So please save me and save yourself from trouble". There was a pause. The prophet was just about to take a very important decision. The whole world was waiting his answer. Would he continue declaring Islam or would he go with his uncle and give it all up.
He made up his mind and he chose what Allah had chosen for him. He said to his uncle, "by the name Allah, uncle. If your people were to bring the sun and place it in my right hand, and bring the moon and put it in my left hand to persuade me to give up Islam, I would not do so. I shall carry out this duty until Allah makes it triumphant or I die.". Abu Talib was full of surprise and admiration for his nephew. He was impressed by his courage, honesty and determination in this struggle to continue spreading the light of Islam.


In the beginning of islam, Muhammad’s, the messenger, delivered his message to his family as well as to the Quraysh people. With much struggle and unmatched patience Muhammad managed to collect a few followers. Muhammad talked to people and advised them not to worship the idols which were made of stone and which could neither do them any good not bring them any harm. He called them instead to follow the religion of Abraham: to believe in one god, Allah, and worship only Him.
But non-believers went on believing in the idols and refused to accept Islam. They were afraid that Islam would bring them lots of enemies and make the rest of the Arabs hate them and boycott their trade. If that happened, they would be in great trouble. Therefore, they decided to do something to Muhammad and his followers. They agreed to send a delegation to Abu Talib and asked him to settle his matter once and for all.
The spokesman said: “ Look Abu Talib, you are one of our leaders, we greatly honour you. Will you judge between us and your nephew ? Tell him to stop insulting our Gods, the idols, mocking our religions, criticizing our beliefs and slandering our fathers who taught us these beliefs. Either you stop him or let us deal with him.”
Abu Talib gave them no answer, but instead sent someone to look for the prophet and tell him to go to his uncle’s house. When the prophet arrived he saw all the important Qurasyh men gathered in his uncle’s house. As soon as he got there, his uncle, Abu Talib, said to him, :My dear nephew, these are the heads of your people and the rich Qurasyh men wishing to makea deal with you. They want you stop attacking their gods, the idols and they will let you worship your God.”
The prophet replied, “Can I call upon them to worship somebody else who is better than these idols ?””Who is that, son ?”asked Abu Talib, “I would call upon them to say one little phrase. If they say it the rest of the Arabs will submit to them and they will rule the people of the world. All I want them to say is “There is no God but Allah.”


The prophet Muhammad had been spreading the religion of islam quietly for three years when Allah commanded him to declare the people publicly. Allah also instructed him to start with his own household - those within his own family. Those among the idolators could be ignored if they would nor respond to his call.
Muhammad understood his orders and went into retirement in his house for a few days. He thought very hard about what he had to do, trying to draw up a plan for the best way to approach his people and call upon them to accept the religion of islam.
The news of Muhammad’s retirement reached some of his aunts or relatives. They become worried that he might not be well. They decided to go and pay him a visit. When they got to his house they asked him about his health and told him how worried they had been about him.
Muhammad answered, “there is nothing the matter with me. Allah has ordered me to introduce islam to my family and household. So, I have to sit down and think about the best way to do this. I had to collect my thoughts and idea before I could speak to any of you.”
Muhammad then went and invited all the members of his family to dinner in his house. He invited all his uncles and his aunts, all his cousins and nieces and all their children. All of Muhammad’s relatives were invited, including even his stubborn and difficult uncle, ‘Abdul ‘Uzza.
Then Muhammad began to deliver his message to his family. He explained the new ideas he had received from God and warned them about what would happen to those who chose not to follow him.


Memformat dan Merapikan Teks :
1. Klik menu format, klik font :
• Tebal (Bold / Ctrl + B),
• Miring (Italic / Ctrl + I),
• Garis Bawah (Underline / Ctrl + U),
• Warna Huruf (Font Color),
• Jenis Garis (Underline Style),
• Warna Garis (Underline Color),
• Animasi Tulisan (Text Effects)
2. Klik pada formating bar :
• Rata Kiri (Align Left / Ctrl + L),
• Rata Kanan (Align Right / Ctrl + R),
• Rata Tengah (Center / Ctrl + E),
• Rata Kiri dan Kanan (Justify / Ctrl + J).
3. Mengidentasi paragraf melalui mistar
4. Memformat paragraf melalui menu bar :
• Klik format, klik paragraph (Untuk mengatur spasi / jarak).
Memperbanyak dan Memindahkan Teks :
1. Blok (Shift/Ctrl, + Panah) kata yang akan dipindahakan
• Memotong (Cut / Ctrl + X)
• Mengcopy (Copy / Ctrl + C)
• Mempaste (Paste / Ctrl + V)
2. Fasilitas Undo (Ctrl + Z) dan Redo (Ctrl + Y)
Mengatur Batas Teks (Margins) dan Ukuran Kertas (Paper)
1. Pilih menu File, klik page setup :
2. Margins :
• Batas atas (Top) = 3 cm
• Batas bawah (Bottom) = 4 cm
• Batas kiri (Left) = 4 cm
• Batas kanan (Right) = 3 cm
3. Paper :
• Letter : Kertas HVS Kuarto (8,5 x 11 inch)
• Legal : Kertas HVS Polio (8,5 x 14 inch)
• A4 : Kertas HVS A4 (8,27 x 11,69 inch)
4. Klik Default (agar kertas yang telah diatur tidak berubah setelah word ditutup)
5. OK.
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Jenis Data
1.      Data numeric : data yang dapat dihitung
2.      Data text : data yang tidak dapat dihitung, gunakan tanda petik tunggal (‘)

Format Tampilan Data
1.      Sorot/Blok sel yang akan di format
2.      Klik menu Format dan klik cells (Ctrl +1), bisa juga menggunakan mouse
3.      Klik salah satu : Number, Aligment, Font, Border, Pattern, dan Protection

Number :
Digunakan untuk memformat nilai numerik, yang terdiri atas beberapa angka yang mewakili angka, nilai satuan mata uang, tanggal, waktu, persentase dan sebagainya.
Alegment :
Digunakan untuk mengatur suatu sel atau range dengan posisi rata kiri, rata kanan, dan rata tengah. Juga mengatur derajat kemiringan data.
Font :
Untuk memilih jenis, ukuran,tampilan warna, dan efek khusus huruf.
Border :
Untuk membuat bingkai atau menambah garis pembatas pada suatu sel atau range.
Patterns :
Untuk memberi warna dan corak latar belakang sel atau range.

Mengubah Nama Sheet
1.      Klik sheet yang akan diubah namanya, klik menu Format pilih sheet
2.      Klik Rename, klik nama baru, enter

Menambah Sheet Baru
1.      Klik kanan (mouse) pada sheet
2.      Klik Insert, pilih Workshet, Klik OK
3.      Untuk memindahkan sheet, klik (tahan) tarik sheet ptempat yang diinginkan

Membuat Grafik
1.      Blok data yang akan dibuat menjadi grafik
2.      Klik insert,Klik chart
3.      Pilih type chart yang diinginkan, lalu next
4.      Pilih datanya yang dibaca Rows atau Colums pada series in untuk menentukan pembacaan data kolom atau baris, lalu klik next
5.      Lalu pilih Title untuk buat judul grafik,
a.       Axes : sumbu X dan Y
b.      Gridlines : untuk garis-garis didalam grafik
c.       Legend : untuk keterangan nama grafik
d.      Data labes : untuk menampilkan nilai pada gambar grafik
e.       Data table : menampilkan data grafik
6.      Bila telah benar klik Next
7.      Tentukan letak grafik As new sheet (lembar kerja baru) atau As object in (lembar kerja yang aktif), setelah selesai klik Finish.

Membuat Catatan & Menggunakan Filter
a.       Letakkan kusor pada sel yang diinginkan Klik kanan pada mouse Insert Comment
b.      Letakkan kusor pada sel yang akan dikoreksi, pada menu Data klik Filter, klik AutoFilter = Untuk memparmudah koreksi
Ekspresi Atau Pernyataan Logika
Sama dengan
Lebih kecil
Lebih besar
Lebih kecil Sama dengan
Lebih besar Sama dengan
Tidak sama dengan
: atau ;
, (dan)
“ (maka)
Sebagai batas range
Penggabung renge
“Na” & “ma”
A1: E9

Menggunakan Fungsi Matematika Dan Statistika
Nilai tertinggi
Nilai terendah
Penjumlahan yang memiliki kreteria tertentu
Menghitung sel yang terisi data
Menghitung sel yang terisi data dengan kreteria tertentu

Operator Logika
AND (dan)
OR (atau)

Fungsi Logika If
IF (Jika)

Fungsi If Dengan Dua Ekspresi

Fungsi Teks/Strings
Left (kiri)
Right (Kanan)
Mid (tengah)

Fungsi Vlookup & Hlookup
Untuk data ke atas
Untuk data mendatar
Untuk mengunci data

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1. Praktikum PLC
2. Praktikum Motor Servo
3. Praktikum Mikrokontroler
4. Praktikum MATLAB
6. Praktikum Kontrol Proses I


1. Memulai Matlab
Perhatikan Dekstop pada layar monitor PC, anda mulai MATLAB dengan melakukan double klik pada shortcut icon MATLAB atau klik Start-All Program-Matlab 6.5-icon Matlab 6.5.
Sedangkan untuk mengakhiri sebuah sesi MATLAB, anda bisa melakukan dengan dua cara, pertama pilih File -> Exit MATLAB dalam window utama MATLAB yang sedang aktif, atau cara kedua lebih mudah yaitu cukup ketikkan type quit dalam Command Window.
2. Menentukan Direktori Tempat Bekerja
Ada tiga area kerja dalam matlab :
1. Command windows
Digunakan untuk menjalankan perintah-perintah Matlab, memanggil tool Matlab seperti editor, fasilitas help, model simulink, dan lain-lain.(gambar 1)
Workspace : Menampilkan semua variable yang pernah dibuat meliputi nama variable, ukuran, jumlah byte dan class.
Command History : Menampilkan perintah-perintah yang telah diketikkan pada command Window.
2. Editor Windows
1. Klik : File, lalu New dan kemudian M-File
2. Ketik pada command windows : ”edit”

3. Figure Windows
Simulink windows, Windows ini umumnya digunakan untuk mensimulasikan system kendali berdasarkan blok diagram yang telah diketahui. Untuk mengoperasikannya ketik smulink pada command windows kemudian pilih File-New- Model.


A. Pengenalan Mikrokontroler
Sebelum kita mengenal lebih jauh tentang mikrokontroler ? kita harus mengetahui terlebih dahulu apa sih mikrokontroler itu ? Mikro itu artinya kecil dan kontroler itu artinya pengontrol/pengendali sehingga dapat diartikan suatu komponen kecil atau chip yang dapat diprogram yang berfungsi sebagai pengontrol (otak) atau lebih lengkapnya Mikrokontroler adalah otak dari suatu sistem elektronika seperti halnya mikroprosesor sebagai otak komputer dimana dia berfungsi sebagai pengendali/pengontrol. Namun mikrokontroler memiliki nilai tambah karena didalamnya sudah terdapat memori dan sistem input/output dalam suatu kemasan IC.
Mikrokontroler memiliki berbagai versi dimana produsen-produsen mikrokontrolernya antara lain seperti : ATMEL, Microchip, Maxim, Renesas, dan philips. Untuk menentukan mikrokontroler mana yang ingin anda gunakan, ada baiknya anda tentukan spesifikasi yang anda inginkan, Beberapa faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan antara lain :
• Jumlah port yang dimilikinya
• Ukuran memori mikrokontroler
• Fitur ADC, timer, dan fasilitas komunikasi 12C
Penampilan LCD
• Kecepatan eksekusi instruksi
• Dan dukungan software yang dapat digunakan
Tapi pada tutorial ini kita berfokus pada mikrokontroler dari ATMEL yaitu mikrokontroler AVR.( Alf and Vegard RISC/ Advanced Virtual RISC) dimana RISCnya adalah Reduced Instruction Set Computer. Arsitektur mikrokontroler jenis AVR pertamakali dikembangkan pada tahun 1996 oleh dua orang mahasiswa Norwegian institute of Technology yaitu Alf-Egil Bogen dan Vegard Wollan.Mikrokontroler AVR kemudian dikembangkan lebih lanjut oleh Atmel. Seri pertama AVR yang dikeluarkan adalah mikrokontroler 8 bit AT90S8515, dengan konfigurasi pin yang sama dengan mikrokontroler 8051, termasuk address dan data bus yang termultipleksi.

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Robot Line Follower merupakan robot yang dapat bergerak mengikuti garis secara otomatis. Robot Line Follower merupakan robot yang sederhana bahkan sekarang anak SMA dan SMP sudah bisa membuatnya selain dalam membuatnya tidak terlalu sulit atau dapat dikatakan mudah selain itu juga komponen yang dibutuhkan dalam membuatnya cukup mudah kita dapatkan serta buku ataupun tutorial yang ada di internet sudah banyak sekali yang membahas cara membuat line follower baik itu tanpa mikrokontroler ataupun dengan mikrokontroler.
Gambar Robot Line Follower
Untuk membaca garis, robot dilengkapi dengan sensor proximity yang dapat  membedakan antara garis hitam dengan lantai putih. Sensor proximity ini dapat kalibrasi untuk menyesuaikan pembacaan sensor terhadap kondisi pencahayaan ruangan. Sehingga pembacaan sensor selalu akurat. Sensor proximity bisa kita buat sendiri. Prinsip kerjanya sederhana, hanya memanfaatkan sifat cahaya yang akan dipantulkan jika mengenai benda berwarna terang dan akan diserap jika mengenai benda berwarna gelap. Sebagai sumber cahaya kita gunakan LED (Light Emiting Diode)yang akan memancarkan cahaya merah. Dan untuk menangkap pantulan cahaya LED, kita gunakan photodiode. Jika sensor berada diatas garis hitam maka photodioda akan menerima sedikit sekali cahaya pantulan. Tetapi jika sensor berada diatas garis putih maka photodioda akan menerima banyak cahaya pantulan. Berikut adalah ilustrasinya :

Pada robot line follower, sensor robot yang dapat digunakan ada 3 jenis, yaitu LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), Photo Dioda atau Photo Transistor.
Baca Juga postingan saya mengenai Membuat Program Line Follower Dengan Fuzzy Logic
Berikut program robot line follower :
#include <mega8535.h>            //Mikrokontroler yang dipakai ATmega 8535
#define s1 PINA.0                   //Pendekalrasian sensor 1 di pinA.0
#define s2 PINA.1                   //Pendekalrasian sensor 2 di pinA.1
#define s3 PINA.2                  //Pendekalrasian sensor 3 di pinA.2
#define s4 PINA.3                 //Pendekalrasian sensor 4 di pinA.3
void main(void)
// Declare your local variables here
// Input/Output Ports initialization
// Port A initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
// Port B initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
// Port C initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
// Port D initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=Out Func4=Out Func3=Out Func2=Out Func1=Out Func0=Out
// State7=T State6=T State5=0 State4=0 State3=0 State2=0 State1=0 State0=0
// Timer/Counter 0 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 0 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC0 output: Disconnected
// Timer/Counter 1 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: 12000,000 kHz
// Mode: Fast PWM top=00FFh
// OC1A output: Non-Inv.
// OC1B output: Non-Inv.
// Noise Canceler: Off
// Input Capture on Falling Edge
// Timer 1 Overflow Interrupt: Off
// Input Capture Interrupt: Off
// Compare A Match Interrupt: Off
// Compare B Match Interrupt: Off
// Timer/Counter 2 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 2 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC2 output: Disconnected
// External Interrupt(s) initialization
// INT0: Off
// INT1: Off
// INT2: Off
// Timer(s)/Counter(s) Interrupt(s) initialization
// Analog Comparator initialization
// Analog Comparator: Off
// Analog Comparator Input Capture by Timer/Counter 1: Off
// Tambahkan kode program dibawah u/mengatur Kecepatan motor Dc(pwm=50)
while (1)
/*posisi sensor
s1 s2 s3 s4
kiri kanan
if (s1==0&&s2==1&&s3==1&&s4==0)                 //Sensor 2 & 3 yang mendeteksi line(inp>=3 volt)
PORTC.3=0;                                                           //Motor maju semua
if(s1==1&&s2==1&&s3==0&&s4==0)                   //Sensor 1 & 2 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                                           //Motor 1 stop motor 2 maju
if(s1==1&&s2==1&&s3==1&&s4==0)                 //Sensor 1, 2 & 3 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                                          //Motor 1 Mundur motor 2 maju
if(s1==1&&s2==0&&s3==0&&s4==0)                //Hanya Sensor 1 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                                       //Motor 1 Stop motor 2 maju
if(s1==0&&s2==1&&s3==0&&s4==0)             //Hanya Sensor 2 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                                     //Motor 1 Stop motor 2 maju
if(s1==0&&s2==0&&s3==1&&s4==1)           //Sensor 3 & 4 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=1;                                                   //Motor 1 maju motor 2 stop
if(s1==0&&s2==1&&s3==1&&s4==1)          //Sensor 2, 3 & 4 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=1;                                                  //Motor 1 maju motor 2 mundur
if (s1==0&&s2==0&&s3==0&&s4==1)       //Hanya Sensor 4 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=1;                                               //Motor 1 maju motor 2 stop
if (s1==0&&s2==0&&s3==1&&s4==0)     //Hanya Sensor 3 yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=1;                                              //Motor 1 maju motor 2 stop
if(s1==0&&s2==0&&s3==0&&s4==0)    //Tidak ada sensor yang mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                            //Motor 1 maju motor 2 maju
if (s1==1&&s2==1&&s3==1&&s4==1)  //Semua sensor mendeteksi line
PORTC.3=0;                                          //Motor 1 maju motor 2 maju